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GLOSSARY

T

TAME (Tertiary Amyl Methyl Ether): Another oxygenate that can be used in reformulated gasoline. It is ether based on reactive C5 olefins and methanol.

Tar Sands: Sedimentary rocks containing heavy oil that cannot be extracted by conventional petroleum recovery methods.

Task Lighting (task–oriented lighting): Lighting designed specifically to illuminate one or more task locations, and generally confined to those locations.

Tax Credits: Credits established by the federal and some state governments to assist the development of the alternative energy industry. From 1978 to 1985, the federal government offered tax credits for alternative energy equipment. The federal government offered a 40 percent tax credit on residential applications and a 10–15 percent credit on commercial and industrial applications.

Temperature: Degree of hotness or coldness measured on one of several arbitrary scales based on some observable phenomenon (such as the expansion).

Terawatt: One trillion watts.

Terawatthour: One trillion watthours.

Therm: One hundred thousand (100,000) British thermal units (1 therm = 100,000 British thermal units). This is approximately the energy in 100 cubic feet of natural gas.

Thermal Break (thermal barrier): An element of low heat conductivity placed in such a way as to reduce or prevent the flow of heat. Some metal framed windows are designed with thermal breaks to improve their overall thermal performance.

Thermal (Energy) Storage: A technology that lowers the amount of electricity needed for comfort conditioning during utility peak load periods. A buildings thermal energy storage system might, for example, use off–peak power to make ice or to chill water at night, later using the ice or chilled water in a power saving process for cooling during the day. (See Thermal Mass below)

Thermal Mass: A material used to store heat, thereby slowing the temperature variation within a space. Typical thermal mass materials include concrete, brick, masonry, tile and mortar, water and rock or other materials with high heat capacity.

Thermal Power Plant: Any stationary or floating electrical generating facility using any source of thermal energy, with a generating capacity of 50 megawatts or more, and any facilities appurtenant thereto. Exploratory, development and production wells, resource transmission lines and other related facilities used in connection with a geothermal exploratory project or a geothermal field development project are not appurtenant facilities for the purposes of this division. Thermal powerplant does not include any wind, hydroelectric or solar photovoltaic electrical generating facility.

Thermally Enhanced Oil Recovery (TEOR): Injection of steam to increase the amount of petroleum that may be recovered from a well.

Thermodynamics: A study of the transformation of energy into other manifested forms and of their practical applications. The three laws of thermodynamics are:

  1. Law of Conservation of Energy: Energy may be transformed in an isolated system, but its total is constant.
  2. Heat cannot be changed directly into work at constant temperature by a cyclic process.
  3. Heat capacity and entropy of every crystalline solid becomes zero at absolute zero (0 degrees Kelvin).

Thermostat: An automatic control device designed to be responsive to temperature and typically used to maintain set temperatures by cycling the Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning system.

Thermostat, Setback: A device, containing a clock mechanism, which can automatically change the inside temperature maintained by the Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning system according to a preset schedule. The heating or cooling requirements can be reduced when a building is unoccupied or when occupants are asleep.

Tidal Power: Energy obtained by using the motion of the tides to run water turbines that drive electric generators.

Time–of–Use Meter: A measuring device that records the times during which a customer uses various amounts of electricity. This type of meter is used for customers who pay time–of–use rates.

Time–of–Use (TOU) Rates: The pricing of electricity based on the estimated cost of electricity during a particular time block. Time–of–use rates are usually divided into three or four time blocks per twenty–four hour period (on–peak, mid–peak, off–peak and sometimes super off–peak) and by seasons of the year (summer and winter). Real–time pricing differs from TOU rates in that it is based on actual (as opposed to forecasted) prices which may fluctuate many times a day and are weather–sensitive, rather than varying with a fixed schedule.

Total End–Use Energy Consumption: End–use energy consumption including electrical system energy losses.

Total Energy Consumption: The sum of fossil fuel consumption by the five sectors plus hydroelectric power, nuclear electric power, net imports of coal coke, and electricity generated for distribution from wood and waste, geothermal, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy. Total energy consumption is also total primary energy consumption adjusted for net interstate flows and losses of electricity.

Total Primary Energy Consumption:Energy used in the generation of electricity whether that electricity is used in Nebraska or not.

Transfer (Electric Utility): To move electric energy from one utility system to another over transmission lines.

Transformer: A device, which through electromagnetic induction but without the use of moving parts, transforms alternating or intermittent electric energy in one circuit into energy of similar type in another circuit, commonly with altered values of voltage and current.

Transmission: Transporting bulk power over long distances.

Transmission Dependent Utility: A utility that relies on its neighboring utilities to transmit to it the power it buys from its suppliers. A utility without its own generation sources, dependent on another utility's transmission system to get its purchased power supplies.

Transmission Owner: An entity that owns transmission facilities or has firm contractual right to use transmission facilities.

Tranmission Utility (TRANSCO): This is a regulated entity which owns, and may construct and maintain, wires used to transmit wholesale power. It may or may not handle the power dispatch and coordination functions. It is regulated to provide non–discriminatory connections, comparable service and cost recovery. According to EPAct, any electric utility, qualifying cogeneration facility, qualifying small power production facility or Federal power marketing agency which owns or operates electric power transmission facilities which are used for the sale of electric energy at wholesale. See Power Pool.

Transmittance: The time rate of heat flow per unit area under steady conditions from the air (or other fluid) on the warm side of a barrier to the air (or fluid) on the cool side, per unit temperature difference between the two sides.

Transmix: A terminal is the main distribution center for motor fuel. At this location, different types of fuels are continuously pumped through a main pipeline. At times, these types of fuels will blend in the pipeline, for example, when gasoline follows diesel. The commingled fuel is called "transmix".

Transportation Sector: Private and public vehicles (e.g., cars, trains, buses) used for the transportation of people and goods.

Turbine Generator: A device that uses steam, heated gases, water flow or wind to cause spinning motion that activates electromagnetic forces and generates electricity.

Turnaround: A refinery turnaround is a planned, periodic shutdown of one or more refinery processing units (or possibly the entire refinery) to perform maintenance, inspection, and repair of equipment and to replace process materials and equipment that have worn out or broken, in order to ensure safe and efficient operations. It is analogous to the major maintenance performed on automobiles, but much more complex. Often, improvements in equipment or the processing scheme can only be implemented during these turnaround or shutdown periods.